Core areas of the National Park

Peszéradacs Meadows

Area: 5757 ha

Biogeographical region: Turján-vidék

This territory of the National Park lies in the most unique part of the Danube-Tisza Intefluve, the Turján-vidék (’fenland’), which has remained in near-natural condition due to prolonged water-logged conditions and special ownership relations, as it had belonged to the Koháry-Coburg dukedom for 200 years. The prevailing land use type of the area was extensive animal husbandry until the middle of the 20th century; local area names are also related this: Gulya-járás (Herd’s place), Ménes-járás (Studs’ place), Tehén-járás (Cows’ place), Széna-dűlő (Hay road), Csíkfogó (Weatherfish catcher), (Farkas) Ordító [(Wolf) Howler] and Daruköltő-turján (Crane-breeder fen).

Some low-lying depressions are partly covered by reed but most of them contain tall sedge meadows or tussock sedge swamps. These are the habitats of Marsh Fern, Yellow Iris and Marsh Marygold. Due to the drop of the water table, rich fens retracted and semi-dry Purple Moorgrass swards expanded in area. Orchids bloom in various colours in this habitat; common species include Anacamptis palustris, Military Orchid, Early Marsh-Orchid, while rare species, such as the Fly Orchid and Woodcock Orchid, also occur here. Highest elevations are covered by meadow-steppes. This habitat hosts a remarkable population of the globally rare Marsh Gladiolus.

Although the vegetation of the Turján-vidék has been explored in detail, we know little about its fauna, particularly arthropods. Roaming the flower-rich meadows, one can encounter a great diversity of butterflies. Rare species include Scarce Large Blue and Alcon Large Blue. The largest Hymenoptera of Europe, the 4 cm long Mammoth Wasp also occurs here.

Due to the high diversity of habitats, all lizard species of the Danube-Tisza Interfluve occur in the Peszéradacs Meadows. This includes a relict species from the Ice Age, the Viviparous Lizard. Two rare reptiles, Smooth Snake and the strictly protected Hungarian Meadow Viper also occur in the area. Birds occupy top positions in the local food chains. Common Kestrel, Little Owl, White Stork, Skylark and European Bee-eater are common in the Danube-Tisza Interfluve and also occur here in good numbers. Montagu’s Harrier is a regular breeder but with some luck, the largest bird of the puszta, Great Bustard can also be spotted.